Volume 6, Issue 3 (12-2020)                   J Sport Biomech 2020, 6(3): 204-213 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ghasemi S, Adibnejad N. Does Body Mass Index Affect the Symmetry Index Between Preferred and Nonpreferred Foot. J Sport Biomech. 2020; 6 (3) :204-213
URL: http://biomechanics.iauh.ac.ir/article-1-240-en.html
1- Department of Sports Management, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Arak University, Arak, Iran.
2- Department of Sports Pathology, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Arak University, Arak, Iran.
Abstract:   (261 Views)
Objective: The presence of symmetry between the superior and non-superior legs prevents muscle imbalance and leads to the prevention of sports injuries. Therefore, this study aimed to answer the question: Does body mass index affect the symmetry index between preferred and non-preferred foot?
Methods: A total of 44 young girls were purposefully divided into two groups (Body Mass Index range of 25 to 30 as an overweight group and Body Mass Index range of 18.50 to 24.99 as a normal weight group) participated in this study. Subjects’ foot index data were recorded using a camera pedoscope while maintaining static balance. An independent t-test was used to compare the results between groups and paired t-test was used to compare the results within the group to examine the studied samples. Tests were analyzed at a significance level of 0.05 using SPSS software V. 24.
Results: Results show symmetry index of the preferred and non-preferred foot of the overweight group ranged from 0.72 to 1.41 and in the normal group was 0.76 to 1.43, and the results were not significant (P>0.05). This means that the preferred and non-preferred foot of the subject had symmetry in both groups.
Conclusion: The present study’s findings showed that body mass index does not affect the foot symmetry index. It is suggested that research be conducted to determine whether obesity influences the symmetry index.
Full-Text [PDF 3404 kb]   (195 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (64 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2020/09/24 | Accepted: 2020/11/24 | Published: 2020/11/23

References
1. Messier SP, Ettinger WH, Doyle TE, Morgan T, James MK, O'Toole ML, et al. Obesity: effects on gait in an osteoarthritic population. Journal of applied Biomechanics. 1996;12(2):161-72. [DOI:10.1123/jab.12.2.161]
2. Messier SP. Osteoarthritis of the knee and associated factors of age and obesity: effects on gait. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 1994;26(12):1446-52. [DOI:10.1249/00005768-199412000-00006] [PMID]
3. DeOreo K, Keogh J. Performance of fundamental motor tasks. A textbook of motor development. 1980:76-91.
4. Deforche B, Lefevre J, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Hills AP, Duquet W, Bouckaert J. Physical fitness and physical activity in obese and nonobese Flemish youth. Obesity research. 2003;11(3):434-41. [DOI:10.1038/oby.2003.59] [PMID]
5. Zvonar M, Lutonska K, Reguli Z. Influence of combative sports on state of plantar pressure. J Martial Arts Anthropol. 2012;12(1):30-5.
6. Barbieri FA, Gobbi LTB, Santiago PRP, Cunha SA. Dominant-non-dominant asymmetry of kicking a stationary and rolling ball in a futsal context. Journal of sports sciences. 2015;33(13):1411-9. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2014.990490] [PMID]
7. Čular D, Miletić Đ, Miletić A. Influence of dominant and non-dominant body side on specific performance in taekwondo. Kinesiology: International journal of fundamental and applied kinesiology. 2010;42(2.):184-93.
8. Tang W, Chang J, Nien Y. The kinematics characteristics of preferred and non-preferred roundhouse kick in elite Taekwondo athletes. Journal of Biomechanics. 2007;40(2):S780. [DOI:10.1016/S0021-9290(07)70768-6]
9. Niemuth PE, Johnson RJ, Myers MJ, Thieman TJ. Hip muscle weakness and overuse injuries in recreational runners. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2005;15(1):14-21. [DOI:10.1097/00042752-200501000-00004] [PMID]
10. Söderman K, Alfredson H, Pietilä T, Werner S. Risk factors for leg injuries in female soccer players: a prospective investigation during one out-door season. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 2001;9(5):313-21. [DOI:10.1007/s001670100228] [PMID]
11. De Cock A, De Clercq D, Willems T, Witvrouw E. Temporal characteristics of foot roll-over during barefoot jogging: reference data for young adults. Gait & posture. 2005;21(4):432-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2004.05.004] [PMID]
12. Orlin MN, McPoil TG. Plantar pressure assessment. Physical therapy. 2000;80(4):399-409. [DOI:10.1093/ptj/80.4.399] [PMID]
13. Wong P-l, Chamari K, Chaouachi A, Wisløff U, Hong Y. Difference in plantar pressure between the preferred and non-preferred feet in four soccer-related movements. British journal of sports medicine. 2007;41(2):84-92. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2006.030908] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. Li JX, Hong Y. Plantar pressure distribution during Tai Chi exercise. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2006;87(6):814-20. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2006.02.035] [PMID]
15. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang A-G, Buchner A. G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior research methods. 2007;39(2):175-91. [DOI:10.3758/BF03193146] [PMID]
16. Hoffman M, Schrader J, Applegate T, Koceja D. Unilateral postural control of the functionally dominant and nondominant extremities of healthy subjects. Journal of athletic training. 1998;33(4):319.
17. Hakimipoor M RR, Minoonejad H. Design, Construction and Validation of Foot Photo Box in Measuring a Selection of Footprint Indexes Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology (JAEP). 2017;13(25):137-46.
18. Sforza C, Fragnito N, Serrao G, Ferrario VF. Harmonic analysis of footprint symmetry in healthy adolescents. Annals of Anatomy-Anatomischer Anzeiger. 2000;182(3):285-91. [DOI:10.1016/S0940-9602(00)80038-2]
19. Sforza C, Michielon G, Fragnito N, Ferrario VF. Foot asymmetry in healthy adults: elliptic fourier analysis of standardized footprints. Journal of orthopaedic research. 1998;16(6):758-65. [DOI:10.1002/jor.1100160619] [PMID]
20. Dağ F, Erdoğan At, Yildirim Dd, Dal U. Foot Symmetry and Plantar Pressure Characteristics in Elite Taekwondo Athletes; Preferred and Non-Preferred Foot Comparison. Türkiye Klinikleri Spor Bilimleri Dergisi. 2017;9(1):12-20. [DOI:10.5336/sportsci.2016-52764]
21. Marsden CD, Obeso JA. The functions of the basal ganglia and the paradox of stereotaxic surgery in Parkinson's disease. Brain. 1994;117(4):877-97. [DOI:10.1093/brain/117.4.877] [PMID]
22. Jolliffe D. Extent of overweight among US children and adolescents from 1971 to 2000. International journal of obesity. 2004;28(1):4-9. [DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802421] [PMID]
23. Ulrich B, Ulrich D. The role of balancing ability in performance of fundamental motor skills in 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Motor development: Current selected research. 1985.
24. Fulton JE, McGuire MT, Caspersen CJ, Dietz WH. Interventions for weight loss and weight gain prevention among youth. Sports Medicine. 2001;31(3):153-65. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-200131030-00002] [PMID]
25. Jaszczak M. The dynamical asymmetry of the upper extremities during symmetrical exercises. Human movement. 2008;9(2):116-20. [DOI:10.2478/v10038-008-0014-7]
26. Fousekis K, Tsepis E, Poulmedis P, Athanasopoulos S, Vagenas G. Intrinsic risk factors of non-contact quadriceps and hamstring strains in soccer: a prospective study of 100 professional players. British journal of sports medicine. 2011;45(9):709-14. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2010.077560] [PMID]
27. McGraw B, McClenaghan BA, Williams HG, Dickerson J, Ward DS. Gait and postural stability in obese and nonobese prepubertal boys. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2000;81(4):484-9. [DOI:10.1053/mr.2000.3782] [PMID]
28. Goulding A, Jones I, Taylor R, Piggot J, Taylor D. Dynamic and static tests of balance and postural sway in boys: effects of previous wrist bone fractures and high adiposity. Gait & posture. 2003;17(2):136-41. [DOI:10.1016/S0966-6362(02)00161-3]
29. Brophy R, Silvers HJ, Gonzales T, Mandelbaum BR. Gender influences: the role of leg dominance in ACL injury among soccer players. British journal of sports medicine. 2010;44(10):694-7. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2008.051243] [PMID]
30. Draper E, Cable J, Sanchez-Ballester J, Hunt N, Robinson J, Strachan R. Improvement in function after valgus bracing of the knee: an analysis of gait symmetry. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery British volume. 2000;82(7):1001-5. [DOI:10.1302/0301-620X.82B7.0821001] [PMID]
31. Karamanidis K, Arampatzis A, Brüggemann G-P, editors. Symmetry and reproducibility of kinematic parameters during various running techniques. ISBS-Conference Proceedings Archive; 2002.
32. Robinson R, Herzog W, Nigg BM. Use of force platform variables to quantify the effects of chiropractic manipulation on gait symmetry. Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics. 1987;10(4):172-6.
33. Musavi H GB, Faramarzi F. The Relationship between Internal Longitudinal Foot Arch with Static and Dynamic Balance of 12-14 years Male Students. Journal of Exercise Science and Medicine (JESM). 2009;1(2):107-231.
34. Hamill J, Bates B, Knutzen K. Ground reaction force symmetry during walking and running. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1984;55(3):289-93. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.1984.10609367]
35. Herzog W, Nigg BM, Read LJ, Olsson E. Asymmetries in ground reaction force patterns in normal human gait. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989;21(1):110-4. [DOI:10.1249/00005768-198902000-00020] [PMID]
36. Rosenrot P, Wall J, Charteris J. Asymmetry of gait and the relationship to lower limb dominance. Human Locomotion. 1980;1:26-7.
37. Maupas E, Paysant J, Martinet N, André J. Asymmetric leg activity in healthy subjects during walking, detected by electrogoniometry. Clinical Biomechanics. 1999;14(6):403-11. [DOI:10.1016/S0268-0033(99)00005-4]
38. Entezari S, Memar R, Kakavand M. Effect of taekwondo on plantar pressure distribution symmetry in dominant and none-dominant limb. Scientific Journals Management System. 2017;15(13):17-24.
39. Kapreli E, Athanasopoulos S, Papathanasiou M, Van Hecke P, Strimpakos N, Gouliamos A, et al. Lateralization of brain activity during lower limb joints movement. An fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2006;32(4):1709-21. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.05.043] [PMID]
40. Õunpuu S, Winter DA. Bilateral electromyographical analysis of the lower limbs during walking in normal adults. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. 1989;72(5):429-38. [DOI:10.1016/0013-4694(89)90048-5]
41. Beck B, Weeks B. Which limb to scan? Revisiting the relationship between functional and skeletal limb dominance. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:306.

© 2021 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Sport Biomechanics

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb