Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2021)                   J Sport Biomech 2021, 7(2): 94-107 | Back to browse issues page


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Soltani N, Jalalvand A, Jahani M R. Comparison of Plantar Force, Pressure and Impulse During Walking in Men and Women With Flat Feet. J Sport Biomech. 2021; 7 (2) :94-107
URL: http://biomechanics.iauh.ac.ir/article-1-257-en.html
1- Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Humanities, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran.
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1. Introduction
he foot has a special structure; while providing a reliable level of support for standing, walking and moving, it bears a lot of pressure [1]. In order to stabilize and move the lower limb, the end of lower limb structures including the joints, ligaments, and muscles of the ankle and foot, are designed in such a way that can be able to bear the body weight with the least amount of energy while standing [2]. Foot deformity is one of the most common causes of pain, fatigue and dysfunction [4]. Flat foot is one of the most common foot deformities in the foot, which refers to loss of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot, and varies depending on the severity and amount of medial longitudinal arch loss.
One area that has recently attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of medicine and sports is the analysis of the distribution of plantar pressure. Measuring the plantar pressure distribution is one of the common methods that, while identifying the structural deformities of the foot, examines the performance of the foot in static and dynamic conditions, including walking [6]. Improper distribution of forces can cause abnormal movements and excessive stress and damage the tissues and muscles of the foot [8]. Center of pressure and peak pressure in different plantar areas are major factors in gait studies [9]. Foot plantar pressure analysis has opened up a new perspective on lower limb pathology. Many researchers have used the peak pressure on the foot sole in the stance phase of gait to find the causes of lower limb pain and injury [10]. In people with flat feet, due to the disturbance of the normal body alignment caused by the loss of arch, the amount and direction of the forces applied to the foot may change in different gait phases. Due to the fact that the foot is one of the most important parts of the body while walking, it has three functions: force absorption, ground contact, and transfer of propulsive forces [11]. Measuring the amount of force while walking has recently become a criterion for identifying or classifying people based on the pattern of their use of forces during walking [12]. Other kinetic parameter that is used to identify risk factors is the area under the reaction force curve (Impulse) [13]. Due to scant research on the comparison of plantar pressure variables such as force, pressure and impulse among men and women with flat feet, this study aims to compare the parameters of foot plantar pressure (ground reaction force, plantar pressure and impulse) in young people with flat feet while walking.
2. Methods
The study population consisted of non-athlete students with flat feet and normal feet. Of these, 48 were selected using a convenience sampling method. The peak plantar pressure, peak plantar force and impulse applied to the sole during walking were measured by a foot scanner at a sampling frequency of 253 Hz. Shapiro-Wilks test was used to examine the normality of data distribution, and data analysis was performed using MANOVA in SPSS software, considering the significance level at P<0.05.
3. Results
Men with flat feet had more peak plantar pressure and force in the midfoot than healthy men, and more peak plantar pressure on the hallux. Women with flat feet had more peak plantar pressure and force on the hallux, toes T2-T3-T4-T5, M2 metatarsal head, and midfoot than healthy women. Men with flat feet had peak plantar pressure on the M4 metatarsal head than women with flat feet (Table 1). 


Men with flat feet had different plantar impulses in the hallux, M2 metatarsal head, and lateral heal. Women with flat feet had more plantar impulses in the hallux, toes T2-T3-T4-T5, and midfoot than healthy women. There was a significant difference between men and women with flat feet in plantar impulses in metatarsal heads M3 and M4, midfoot, and lateral and medial heels
4. Discussion and Conclusion
Different effects of gender and sole structure on the distribution of plantar pressure should be considered in the production and design of shoes, medical insoles and special sports footwear.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Hamadan University of Medical Scieneces (Code: IR.UMSHA.REC.1398.256). All ethical principles are considered in this article. The participants were informed about the purpose of the research and its implementation stages. They were also assured about the confidentiality of their information. They were free to leave the study whenever they wished, and if desired, the research results would be available to them. 

Funding
The paper was extracted from the MA. dissertation of the first author at the Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Humanities, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan.

Authors' contributions
Conceptualization: Ali Jalalvand; Research: Ali Jalalvand, Negin Soltani; Editing and finalizing: All authors.

Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.


Refrences
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  24. Hillstrom HJ, Song J, Kraszewski AP, Hafer JF, Mootanah R, Dufour AB, et al. Foot type biomechanics part 1: Structure and function of the asymptomatic foot. Gait Posture. 2013; 37(3):445-51. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.09.007] [PMID] [PMCID]
  25. Post WR, Teitge R, Amis A. Patellofemoral malalignment: Looking beyond the viewbox. Clin Sports Med. 2002; 21(3):521-46. [DOI:10.1016/S0278-5919(02)00011-X] [PMID]
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  28. Queen RM, Mall NA, Nunley JA, Chuckpaiwong B. Differences in plantar loading between flat and normal feet during different athletic tasks. Gait Posture. 2009; 29(4):582-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.12.010] [PMID]
  29. Cornwall MW, McPoil TG, Fishco WD, O’Donnell D, Hunt L, Lane C. The influence of first ray mobility on forefoot plantar pressure and hindfoot kinematics during walking. Foot Ankle Int. 2006; 27(7):539-47. [DOI:10.1177/107110070602700710] [PMID]
  30. Mootanah R, Song J, Lenhoff MW, Hafer JF, Backus SI, Gagnon D, et al. Foot type biomechanics part 2: Are structure and anthropometrics related to function? Gait Posture. 2013; 37(3):452-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.09.008] [PMID] [PMCID]
  31. Memar R, Noori S. [Comparison of plantar pressure distribution between the right and left foot and their correlation with height and weight at wrestlers (Persian)]. Res Sport Med Technol. 2016; 14(12):45-57. [DOI: 20.1001.1.22520708.1395.14.12.5.4]
  32. Cho SH, Park JM, Kwon OY. Gender differences in three dimensional gait analysis data from 98 healthy Korean adults. Clin Biomech. 2004; 19(2):145-52. [DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2003.10.003] [PMID]
  33. Sun D, Fekete G, Mei Q, Gu Y. The effect of walking speed on the foot inter-segment kinematics, ground reaction forces and lower limb joint moments. PeerJ. 2018; 6:e5517. [DOI:10.7717/peerj.5517] [PMID] [PMCID]
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: Special
Received: 2021/06/23 | Accepted: 2021/06/26 | Published: 2021/09/1

References
1. Levangie PK, Norkin CC. Joint structure and function: a comprehensive analysis. 2011.
2. Kisner C, Colby LA, Borstad J. Therapeutic exercise: foundations and techniques: Fa Davis; 2017.
3. Bonato P, Ebenbichler GR, Roy SH, Lehr S, Posch M, Kollmitzer J, et al. Muscle fatigue and fatigue-related biomechanical changes during a cyclic lifting task. Spine. 2003;28(16):1810-20. [DOI:10.1097/01.BRS.0000087500.70575.45] [PMID]
4. Pauk J, Daunoraviciene K, Ihnatouski M, Griskevicius J, Raso JV. Analysis of the plantar pressure distribution in children with foot deformities. Acta Bioeng Biomech. 2010;12(1):29-34.
5. Van Boerum DH, Sangeorzan BJ. Biomechanics and pathophysiology of flat foot. Foot and ankle clinics. 2003;8(3):419-30. [DOI:10.1016/S1083-7515(03)00084-6]
6. Turner D, Helliwell PS, Burton AK, Woodburn J. The relationship between passive range of motion and range of motion during gait and plantar pressure measurements. Diabetic Medicine. 2007;24(11):1240-6. [DOI:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2007.02233.x] [PMID]
7. Kwon O-Y, Mueller MJ. Walking patterns used to reduce forefoot plantar pressures in people with diabetic neuropathies. Physical therapy. 2001;81(2):828-35. [DOI:10.1093/ptj/81.2.828] [PMID]
8. Safaei-Pour Z, Ebrahimi E, Saeedi H, Kamali M. Invesigation of dynamic plantar pressure distribution in healthy adults during standing and walking. Archives of Rehabilitation. 2009;10(2):0-.
9. Qu X, Yeo JC. Effects of load carriage and fatigue on gait characteristics. Journal of biomechanics. 2011;44(7):1259-63. [DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.02.016] [PMID]
10. Nagel A, Fernholz F, Kibele C, Rosenbaum D. Long distance running increases plantar pressures beneath the metatarsal heads: a barefoot walking investigation of 200 marathon runners. Gait & posture. 2008;27(1):152-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.12.012] [PMID]
11. Chui KC, Jorge M, Yen S-C, Lusardi MM. Orthotics and Prosthetics in Rehabilitation E-Book: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2019.
12. Jenkins J, Ellis C, editors. Using ground reaction forces from gait analysis: Body mass as a weak biometric. International conference on pervasive computing; 2007: Springer.
13. Niu W, Feng T, Jiang C, Zhang M. Peak vertical ground reaction force during two-leg landing: a systematic review and mathematical modeling. BioMed research international. 2014;2014. [DOI:10.1155/2014/126860] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang A-G, Buchner A. G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior research methods. 2007;39(2):175-91. [DOI:10.3758/BF03193146] [PMID]
15. Murley GS, Menz HB, Landorf KB. A protocol for classifying normal-and flat-arched foot posture for research studies using clinical and radiographic measurements. Journal of foot and ankle research. 2009;2(1):22. [DOI:10.1186/1757-1146-2-22] [PMID] [PMCID]
16. Jonely H, Brismée J-M, Sizer Jr PS, James CR. Relationships between clinical measures of static foot posture and plantar pressure during static standing and walking. Clinical Biomechanics. 2011;26(8):873-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2011.04.008] [PMID]
17. Chuckpaiwong B, Nunley JA, Mall NA, Queen RM. The effect of foot type on in-shoe plantar pressure during walking and running. Gait & posture. 2008;28(3):405-11. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.01.012] [PMID]
18. Willems TM, De Ridder R, Roosen P. The effect of a long-distance run on plantar pressure distribution during running. Gait & posture. 2012;35(3):405-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.10.362] [PMID]
19. Buldt AK, Murley GS, Butterworth P, Levinger P, Menz HB, Landorf KB. The relationship between foot posture and lower limb kinematics during walking: A systematic review. Gait & posture. 2013;38(3):363-72. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.01.010] [PMID]
20. Perttunen J. Foot loading in normal and pathological walking: University of Jyväskylä; 2002.
21. Wearing SC, Urry S, Smeathers JE, Battistutta D. A comparison of gait initiation and termination methods for obtaining plantar foot pressures. Gait & posture. 1999;10(3):255-63. [DOI:10.1016/S0966-6362(99)00039-9]
22. Levangie P, Norkin C. Joint structure and function: a comprehensive analysis FA Davis Company. 2011.
23. Ledoux WR, Hillstrom HJ. The distributed plantar vertical force of neutrally aligned and pes planus feet. Gait & posture. 2002;15(1):1-9. [DOI:10.1016/S0966-6362(01)00165-5]
24. Hillstrom HJ, Song J, Kraszewski AP, Hafer JF, Mootanah R, Dufour AB, et al. Foot type biomechanics part 1: structure and function of the asymptomatic foot. Gait & posture. 2013;37(3):445-51. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.09.007] [PMID] [PMCID]
25. Post WR, Teitge R, Amis A. Patellofemoral malalignment: looking beyond the viewbox. Clinics in sports medicine. 2002;21(3):521-46, x. [DOI:10.1016/S0278-5919(02)00011-X]
26. Gokeler A, Hof A, Arnold M, Dijkstra P, Postema K, Otten E. Abnormal landing strategies after ACL reconstruction. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2010;20(1):e12-e9. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00873.x] [PMID]
27. Hunt AE, Smith RM. Mechanics and control of the flat versus normal foot during the stance phase of walking. Clinical biomechanics. 2004;19(4):391-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2003.12.010] [PMID]
28. Queen RM, Mall NA, Nunley JA, Chuckpaiwong B. Differences in plantar loading between flat and normal feet during different athletic tasks. Gait & posture. 2009;29(4):582-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.12.010] [PMID]
29. Cornwall MW, McPoil TG, Fishco WD, O'Donnell D, Hunt L, Lane C. The influence of first ray mobility on forefoot plantar pressure and hindfoot kinematics during walking. Foot & ankle international. 2006;27(7):539-47. [DOI:10.1177/107110070602700710] [PMID]
30. Mootanah R, Song J, Lenhoff MW, Hafer JF, Backus SI, Gagnon D, et al. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: are structure and anthropometrics related to function? Gait & posture. 2013;37(3):452-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.09.008] [PMID] [PMCID]
31. Memar R, Noori S. Comparison of plantar pressure distribution between the right and left foot and their correlation with height and weight at wrestlers. Research in Sport Medicine and Technology. 2016;14(12):45-57. [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.jsmt.14.12.45]
32. Cho S, Park J, Kwon O. Gender differences in three dimensional gait analysis data from 98 healthy Korean adults. Clinical biomechanics. 2004;19(2):145-52. [DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2003.10.003] [PMID]
33. Sun D, Fekete G, Mei Q, Gu Y. The effect of walking speed on the foot inter-segment kinematics, ground reaction forces and lower limb joint moments. PeerJ. 2018;6:e5517. [DOI:10.7717/peerj.5517] [PMID] [PMCID]

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