Volume 6, Issue 3 (12-2020)                   J Sport Biomech 2020, 6(3): 154-169 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Fattahi A, Zehtab Asghari H, Koreili Z. A Comparative Study of Plantar Arch Index, Weight Distribution, Equilibrium Performance, and Selected Musculoskeletal Disorders in Active and Non-active Adolescences. J Sport Biomech. 2020; 6 (3) :154-169
URL: http://biomechanics.iauh.ac.ir/article-1-230-en.html
1- Departement of Sports Biomechanics, Faculty of Fports Sciences and Physical Education, Islamic Azad Uniuversity, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.
Full-Text [PDF 5389 kb]   (610 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (944 Views)
Full-Text:   (1022 Views)
1. Introduction
dolescence is defined as the period of developmental processes of transition from childhood to adulthood. One of the aspects of adolescence is the physical and psychological changes of puberty from the beginning of this period. At this stage of puberty, a person’s skeletal condition is affected for various reasons, which can also affect the person’s balance somehow. Musculoskeletal abnormalities affect posture and stability. Maintaining balance and postural control is one of the essential tasks of the human locomotor system. From a biomechanical point of view, the foot is a functional unit that aims to maintain body weight and provide leverage to move forward when walking and running.
Biomechanical changes in the base of support and disruption of different information of any joint or structure located along the lower extremity motor chain can affect postural control strategy [1]. Despite their small surface area, the soles play an important role in maintaining the body’s balance. The anatomical structure of transverse, internal longitudinal, and external longitudinal arches cause the formation of stable operations and the production of force to move the body forward in all human activities [2]. 
Due to the determining role of balance factor in the process of growth and motor development in childhood and adolescence, the effect of deformity or structural deformities of the foot on maintaining body balance during this period has not been studied by researchers. Since providing treatment and correction programs for plantar deformities in childhood and adolescence is more effective, it is more important to address this issue. This study aimed to compare the ‘plantar arch index’, ‘weight distribution’, ‘equilibrium performance’, and selected ‘musculoskeletal disorders’ in the active and non-active adolescents.
2. Materials and Methods
This is a quasi-experimental and descriptive study. The statistical population consisted of adolescents in Tehran City who were randomly selected. The statistical sample included 50 persons with the age range of 11-14 years, among which 25 subjects with the Mean±SD age of 12.46±1.10 years, the Mean±SD height of 157.69±8.48 cm, and the Mean±SD weight of 46.65±8.45 kg were located in the “non-active” group, and 25 others with Mean±SD age of 12.26±1.13 years, the Mean±SD height of 153.91±10.09 cm, and the Mean±SD weight of 44.52±7.76 kg were located in the “active” group. 
To evaluate the normality of data distribution, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. Spearman’s correlation and Mann–Whitney U test were used to assess the relationships between variables at a significance level of 0.05. All subjects were healthy at the time of the study, and they completed a personal satisfaction questionnaire to participate in the study. The test procedure was described in detail for each subject. Subjects’ skeletal abnormalities were first assessed manually by the New York test. Based on this test and using the visual method using a checkerboard, different parts of the body were evaluated, and then the results were recorded in a particular table.
To evaluate the feet’ soles, first, the observational method was used. Using the American-made 3BODY VIEW foot scanner, the subjects’ type of complication and INDEX were determined. Also, to measure the dynamic balance, an ENC device made by “Danesh Salar Iranian Co”. was used.
3. Results
The independent t-test revealed that the two groups had a significant difference in equilibrium performance (P=0.04), but there was no significant difference in weight distribution parameters. Also, the Mann-Whitney test results did not reveal a significant difference between the two groups in the variables of the ‘plantar arch index’ and ‘musculoskeletal abnormalities’ (P<0.05). 
As you can see in Table 1, the dynamic balance had a significant difference (P=0.04) only in the “forward head” complication of the “non-active” group. 


“Pronation” anomaly had a positive correlation with “forward head” complication, and a significant level (P=0.03) was observed, but “supination” anomaly was negatively correlated with “forward head” complication in the “active” group and positively correlated with the “non-active” group; however, no significant level was observed. 
The arch of the sole of the foot with dynamic balance and weight distribution on the left foot, supination and varus has a negative correlation in the active group; Also in the inactive group, this negative correlation is observed only in the weight distribution on the left foot and supination. Besides, there was a significant difference between the “plantar arch index” with “active” group “pronation” (P=0.01) and “active” group “varus” (P=0.05) and “active” group “valgus” (P=0.05) as well as “non-active” group “pronation” (P=0.01). “Dynamic balance” in the “active” group had a negative correlation in “weight distribution” on the right foot, “pronation,” “varus,” and “valgus”.
“Kyphosis” negatively correlated with other lower limb abnormalities, but no significant difference was observed. The correlation between “varus” and “valgus” was also negative in both “active” and “non-active” groups, with only a significant difference in the “active” group (P=0.00).
4. Discussion and Conclusion
The ability to maintain postural control is an essential factor in performing many daily activities. Motor skills play a significant role in children’s learning and provide a basis for developing other critical understandings such as academic and social skills. As a result, any disruption in the motor skills process can lead to weakness and difficulty in academic, social, individual, and learning skills in adolescents. The results of this study revealed that in the variables of “plantar arch index” with selected upper limb abnormalities, no difference was observed between the “active” and “non-active” groups.
“Lordosis” had a negative correlation with other upper limb abnormalities in the “active” group. The “plantar arch index” with “dynamic balance” and “weight distribution” on “supination” and “varus” had a negative correlation in the “active” group. Still, in the “non-active” group, this negative correlation was observed only in the “weight distribution” on the “supination”. “Kyphosis” was also negatively correlated with other lower limb abnormalities. 
This study revealed the difference between dynamic balance and musculoskeletal abnormalities in active and non-active adolescents. However, many factors affect the ankle’s posture and structure during activity and balance function, causing impaired balance, decreased stability, the prevalence of skeletal abnormalities, and reduced performance. To test these hypotheses requires more extensive research with more sophisticated equipment.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

All ethical principles are considered in this article. The participants were informed of the purpose of the research and its implementation stages. They were also assured about the confidentiality of their information and were free to leave the study whenever they wished, and if desired, the research results would be available to them.

Funding
This research did not receive any grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or non-profit sectors

Authors' contributions
All authors equally contributed to preparing this article.

Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.


References
  1. Aminian G, Safaeepour Z, Farhoodi M, Pezeshk AF, Saeedi H, Majddoleslam B. The effect of prefabricated and proprioceptive foot orthoses on plantar pressure distribution in patients with flexible flatfoot during walking. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2013; 37(3):227-32. [DOI:10.1177/0309364612461167] [PMID]
  2. Hertel J, Gay MR, Denegar CR. Differences in postural control during single-leg stance among healthy individuals with different foot types. J Athl Train. 2002; 37(2):129-32. [PMCID]
  3. Havanloo F, Akbari H , Khademinejad S. [The relationship between spinal curvatures and dynamic postural control (Persian)]. Res Sport Sci. 2014; 7:113-22. http://ensani.ir/file/download/article/20130218131636-9760-40.pdf
  4. Daneshmandi H, Alizadeh MH, Gharakhanloo R. [Corrective exercises (Identification and practice) (Persian)]. Tehran: SAMT; 2004. https://www.gisoom.com/book/1820613/%DA%A9%D8%AA%D8%A7%D8%A8-
  5. Winter DA, Prince F, Stergiou P, Powell C. Medial-lateral and anterior-posterior motor responses associated with centre of pressure changes in quiet standing. Neurosci Res Commun. 1993; 12(3):141-8. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Medial-lateral-and-anterior-posterior-motor-with-of-Winter-Prince/4fae12d52747df83f871ac168d3269ca07acd893
  6. Wright WG, Ivanenko YP, Gurfinkel VS. Foot anatomy specialization for postural sensation and control. J Neurophysiol. 2012; 107(5):1513-21. [DOI:10.1152/jn.00256.2011] [PMID] [PMCID]
  7. Fan Y, Fan Y, Li Z, Lv C, Luo D. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot. PLoS One. 2011; 6(3):e17749. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0017749] [PMID] [PMCID]
  8. Vareka I, Vareková RJAUPOG. The height of the longitudinal foot arch assessed by Chippaux-Smirak index in the compensated and uncompensated foot types according to Root. Acta Univ Palacki Olomuc Gymn. 2008; 38(1):35-41. https://www.gymnica.upol.cz/pdfs/gym/2008/01/04.pdf
  9. Idris FH. The growth of foot arches and influencing factors. Paediatr Indones. 2005; 45(3):111-7. [DOI:10.14238/pi45.3.2005.111-7]
  10. Emery CA, Cassidy JD, Klassen TP, Rosychuk RJ, Rowe BB. Development of a clinical static and dynamic standing balance measurement tool appropriate for use in adolescents. Phys Ther. 2005; 85(6):502-14. [DOI:10.1093/ptj/85.6.502] [PMID]
  11. Tsung BYS, Zhang M, Fan YB, Boone DA. Quantitative comparison of plantar foot shapes under different weight-bearing conditions. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2000; 40(6):517-26. [DOI: 10.1682/jrrd.2003.11.0517]
  12. Cote KP, Brunet ME, Gansneder BM, Shultz SJ. Effects of pronated and supinated foot postures on static and dynamic postural stability. J Athl Train. 2005; 40(1):41-6. [PMCID]
  13. Daneshmandi H, Sardar MA, Pour HH. [A comparative study of spinal abnormalities in male and female students (Persian)]. Harakat. 2005; 23(23):143-56. https://joh.ut.ac.ir/article_10354.html
  14. Cho C-Y. Survey of faulty postures and associated factors among Chinese adolescents. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2008; 31(3):224-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.jmpt.2008.02.003] [PMID]
  15. Nolan D. Single-leg standing abilities of adolescent athletes and non-athletes. Boston: MGH Institute of Health Professions; 2008. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Single-leg-standing-abilities-of-adolescent-and-Nolan/95f65deaea4310ae81df0bece212dd5323626d98
  16. Hopkins JT, Palmieri R. Effects of ankle joint effusion on lower leg function. Clin J Sport Med. 2004; 14(1):1-7. [DOI:10.1097/00042752-200401000-00001] [PMID]
  17. Esmaeili H, Anbarian M, Salari Esker F, Hajiloo B, Sanjari MA. Long-term effects of foot orthoseson leg muscles activity in individuals with pesplanus during walking. SJKU. 2014; 19(1):88-98. [DOI: 10.22102/19.1.88]
  18. Tasoojian E, Dizaji E, Memar R, Alizade F. [The comparison of plantar pressure and ground reaction force in male and female elite karate practitioners (Persian)] .J Paramed Sci Rehabil. 2016; 5(3):42-54. [DOI: 10.22038/JPSR.2016.7343]
  19. Fu GQ, Wah YC, Sura S, Jagadeesan S, Chinnavan E, Judson JP. Influence of rearfoot alignment on static and dynamic postural stability. Int J Ther Rehabil. 2018; 25(12):628-35. [DOI:10.12968/ijtr.2018.25.12.628]
  20. Cobb SC, Tis LL, Johnson BF, Higbie EJ. The effect of forefoot varus on postural stability. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2004; 34(2):79-85. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2004.34.2.79] [PMID]
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: Special
Received: 2020/08/16 | Accepted: 2020/10/5 | Published: 2021/02/28

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Sport Biomechanics

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb