Volume 7, Issue 1 (6-2021)                   J Sport Biomech 2021, 7(1): 14-29 | Back to browse issues page


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Fatahi A, Panjehzadeh B, Koreli‌ Z. Comparison of Parametric Indices of Anthropometric and Biomechanical Characteristics of Female Basketball Players, Volleyball Players and Handball Players. J Sport Biomech. 2021; 7 (1) :14-29
URL: http://biomechanics.iauh.ac.ir/article-1-237-en.html
1- Department of Sports Biomechanics, Faculty of Physical Education, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.
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1. Introduction
Considering the significance of the effects of various anthropometric and biomechanical characteristics in optimizing the performance of sports skills, the focus of researchers in sports sciences is on identifying these factors and using them in the design of training programs; therefore, various researchers explored the biomechanical markers of the dimensions of sports skills (1, 2). The present study aimed to compare the parametric indices of anthropometric and biomechanical characteristics of adolescent female basketball players, volleyball players, and handball players.

2. Methods 
The statistical sample of this study included 100 non-randomly selected female students (35 handball players, 37 volleyball players, & 28 basketball players). The anthropometric variable measurements included height, weight, measurements in the sitting position, consisting of the following: Vertical height from the flat seat, pelvic width, knee-serine length, knee width, subcutaneous fat of the leg, leg length, ankle width, knee-to-ground height measurement, knee-serine length in sitting position, head circumference, trunk circumference At the level of the chest, a trunk at the level of the umbilicus and pelvis, arm around the upper armpit and most of the arm and forearm, elbow, wrist, mid-thigh, knee, most of the calf muscle, arch Leg, wingspan, and height, sitting pelvis width, width, head diameter and length, trunk width at chest level, navel and pelvis, elbow width, wrist width, knee width, and ankle diameter and forearm length, length Hand - wrist to the end of the third toe, thigh length, leg length, and leg length, subcutaneous fat: triceps, biceps, scapula, chest, armpit, abdomen, supraspinatus, calf, and thigh. 10 biomechanical variables (closed and open angel balance, stork, sergeant jump, Madison ball throw, Elinews, Swedish swimming, flexibility, and sitting position) were measured in the research samples using the statistical technique of component analysis (PCA). 
The main parameters related to anthropometric characteristics in the handball group are height, weight, knee-to-ground height, head width, head circumference, waist circumference, leg length, ankle diameter, scapular fat, and biceps fat in the volleyball group. Are: height, weight, the width of the trunk at the level of the navel, the width of the pelvis while sitting, elbow circumference, knee circumference, arch of the leg, leg length, double fat, triple fat, in the basketball team are: height, elbow circumference Head width, trunk circumference at chest level, trunk circumference at navel level, leg length, ankle diameter, scapular fat, and abdominal fat and in three groups are: height, knee-to-ground height, elbow circumference, head circumference, wrist circumference Hands, trunk circumference at chest level, scapular fat and most forearm circumference were present and 6 biomechanical parameters (open and closed eye balance, stork, open and closed angel, lying down and sitting) were highlighted for each group.
For the statistical analysis of the main components of information and determination of the main indicators of anthropometric and biomechanical properties, inferential statistics, including Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 0.05 were applied. Moreover, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was implemented for examining the normal distribution of data. Furthermore, mean, standard deviation, percentage rank to describe the information, multiple correlation coefficient to reduce the overlapping information, and LSD post hoc test to test the differences between groups were performed in SPSS.

3. Results
The anthropometric characteristics of head width, leg length, ankle diameter, scapular fat in handball and basketball groups, between biceps fat and weight in handball and volleyball groups, abdominal fat and leg length and for volleyball and basketball groups, as well as the height of the main index common to all groups, were obtained. Additionally, there was a significant difference between height, weight, knee-to-ground height, head width, head circumference, trunk circumference at navel level, trunk circumference at chest level, trunk width at navel level, elbow circumference, pelvic width at sitting position, foot arch circumference, knee circumference, leg length, scapular fat, ankle diameter, leg length, and waist circumference (P=0.00 & P=0.01, respectively); however, there was no significant difference in biceps fat (P=0.56) and triple arm (P=0.75) between the 3 study groups.
Concerning the biomechanical characteristics, 6 parameters were highlighted per age group. Open-Eyed and closed-eyed angels (P=0.00) were shared in handball and basketball groups, as well as muscular endurance (sit-ups; P =0.00) in volleyball and basketball groups. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between the indicators of balance (open-eyed angel, closed-eyed angel, & stork) and muscular endurance (Swedish sit-ups & swimming; P=0.00) between the study groups.

4. Discussion and Conclusion 
The height of the main common index obtained between the handball, volleyball, and basketball groups as well as the major anthropometric characteristics vary according to the subjects’ sports field. Moreover, biomechanical characteristics were different respecting the unique skills in each discipline, and in some sports, biomechanical characteristics are commonly based on the characteristics of the sport. Thus, to optimize the components of sports skills and design training programs for each sport, it is necessary to evaluate and study the anthropometric and biomechanical characteristics of individuals.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

All ethical principles are considered in this article. The participants were informed about the purpose of the research and its implementation stages. They were also assured about the confidentiality of their information and were free to leave the study whenever they wished, and if desired, the research results would be available to them.

Funding
This research did not receive any grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or non-profit sectors. 

Authors' contributions
All authors equally contributed to preparing this article.

Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.
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Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: Special
Received: 2020/09/14 | Accepted: 2021/04/18 | Published: 2021/06/21

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